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­­­­­­­­亚马孙平原自然地理环境特征分析

亚马逊平原气候特征

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完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分)

阅读下面散文,从散文后所给标题的四个选项(A、B、C、D)中,选出可以填入空缺处的最佳选项,并在答题卡大将该项涂黑。

Mother used to ask me what the most important part of the body is. Through the years I would ­­21 ­­­ at the correct answer. When I was younger, I thought 22 very important to us, so I said, “My ears, mum.” She said, “No, many people are 23 . But think about it and I’ll ask you again.”

Since making my first 24 , I had often thought over the question. So the next time I told her, “Mum, it must be our eyes.” She said, “You are 25 fast, but the answer isn’t correct because there are blind people.”

26 the years, mother asked me a couple more 27 and always her response was, “No, but you are getting 28 , dear.” Last year, my Grandpa 29 . Everybody was heartbroken, crying. When it was our __30 to say our final good-bye to Grandpa, Mum asked me, “!Do you know the important body part yet, my dear?”

I was 31 when she was asking me. I always thought this was a 32__ between us. She saw the __33 look on my face and told me “This question’s very important. It shows you have really 34 your life.” I saw her eyes full of tears. She said, “My dear, the most important body part is your 35 .” I asked, “Is it because they hold up your head?” she replied, “No, it is 36 on them a crying friend or a loved one can __37 their head. I hope you’ll have a shoulder to cry 38 when you need it.”

Then and there I understood the most important body part is not a 39 one. It is being sympathetic(怜悯的) to the pain of 40 .

21. A. guess B. believe C. doubt D. notice

22. A. love B. health C. sight D. sound

23. A. blind B. invisible C. deaf D. thoughtful

24. A. discovery B. decision C. advice D. attempt

25. A. thinking B. learning C. growing D. changing

26. A. Over B. Till C. Beyond D. Before

27. A. times B. things C. questions D. ways

28. A. stronger B. taller C. nicer D. smarter

29. A. left out B. got ill C. passed away D. got wounded

30. A. turn B. duty C. pity D. chance

31. A. satisfied B. shocked C. interested D. excited

32. A. test B. secret C. match D. game

33. A. worried B. regretted C. puzzled D. pained

34. A. lived B. found C. disliked D. enjoyed

35. A. feet B. shoulders C. hands D. hair

36. A. how B. why C. because D. whether

37. A. put B. carry C. leave D. rest

38. A. on B. by C. above D. for

39. A. valuable B. selfish C. useful D. precious

40. A. Grandpa B. the deaf C. others D. the blind

地形

亚马孙平原西宽东窄,最宽处1280千米;地势低平坦荡。大部分在海拔150米以下,平原中部的马瑙斯,海拔仅44米。东部更低,逐渐接近海平面。亚马逊平原的河漫滩约占平原面积的10%,由松软的近代冲积层组成,地势特别低下,河漫滩之外,45~60米的陡岸之上为高位平原,在西经60°以西最为宽广,表层物质由第三纪和第四纪的沙与粘土组成,已呈部分固结状态。亚马逊平原是在南美洲陆台亚马孙拗陷基础上,经第四纪上升、成陆后,由亚马孙河干、支流冲积而成的。 亚马孙平原下游河口附近,因近代沉降作用,没有三角洲出露。

气候

亚马孙平原全境属热带雨林气候,为世界上面积最广的赤道多雨区。终年受赤道低气压带控制,盛行上升气流,多对流雨。年平均气温27-28℃,年平均降水量在1500-2500毫米之间。

水文

亚亚马孙河流域马孙河是世界上流量最大、流域面积最广的河流。河流蜿蜒曲折,湖沼密布,汛期普遍遭受泛滥,排水不良。河口宽达240千米,泛滥期流量达每秒18万立方米,是密西西比河的10倍。泻水量如此之大,使距岸边160千米内的海水变淡。已知支流有1000多条,其中7条长度超过1600千米。亚马逊河沉积下的肥沃淤泥滋养了65000平方千米的地区,它的流域面积约705万平方千米,几乎是世界上任何其他大河流域的两倍。

自然资源

亚亚马孙平原热带雨林马孙平原植物茂盛,种类繁多,特有种占1/3。据估计,林海中大约积蓄着8亿立方米木材,约占世界木材蓄积总量的1/5。乔木以桃金娘科、芸香科、楝科、樟科、夹竹桃科等树种占优势。盛产红木、乌木、绿木、巴西果、三叶胶、乳木、巴西樱桃果、象牙椰子等多种经济林木,巴西樱桃果树可长到80米高,樱桃果的含油量为73%,比芝麻、花生的含油量高得多,可以食用,经济价值特别高。

亚马孙平原的野生动物种类非常繁多,而且数量丰富。热带雨林中栖息着猴子、树懒、蜂鸟、金刚、鹦鹉、巨大蝴蝶和无数蝙蝠,亚马孙河中生活着凯门鳄、淡水龟,以及水栖哺乳类动物如海牛、淡水海豚等,陆地生活着美洲虎、细腰猫、貘、水豚、犰狳等。另有2500种鱼,以及1600多种鸟。亚马孙森蚺是世界上最大的蛇,最长可达6.3米,重达225千克以上,粗如成年男子的躯干;但一般森蚺长度在3米左右。森蚺生性喜水,通常栖息在泥岸或者浅水中,捕食水鸟、龟、水豚、貘等,有时1.5米的凯门鳄。森蚺会把凯门鳄紧紧缠绕,直到它窒息死亡,然后整条吞下去,此后几个星期,不用进食。尽管成年森蚺是极可怕的猎食动物,但是幼蚺出生时,长不过76厘米。幼蚺是卵胎生的,有时一胎达70条左右。许多幼蚺被凯门鳄吃掉。幸存的长大后,反过来吃凯门鳄。不过遇到更大的黑凯门鳄鱼、美洲鳄的话森蚺也只能逃命了。亚马孙河原产的物种有食人鲳、海伦娜闪蝶、勐仑王莲等。

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